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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 137-140

Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending NIMS Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, in Western India


1 Department of MLT, Medical Laboratory Technology, NIMS College of Paramedical Technology, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Medical Laboratory Technology, NIMS College of Paramedical Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Central Lab, NIMS Super Speciality Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
4 NIMS College of Paramedical Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission19-Nov-2022
Date of Decision22-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance24-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication11-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Atul Khajuria
Medical Laboratory Technology, NIMS College of Paramedical Technology, NIMS University Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sujhs.sujhs_34_22

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  Abstract 


Background: Anemia is the most common hematological disease in pregnancy. Anemia is described as having a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the peripheral blood of 10 g/dl or less, in accordance to the most current WHO standard. Iron deficiency is the most frequent reason of anemia at some point of pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency is a much less frequent cause. In some communities, up to 80% of pregnant women are anemic. Women from low socioeconomic groups and young adults are the most vulnerable. Anemia is identified using measuring Hb concentrations and examining a peripheral blood smear for red blood cell changes. Iron and folate supplementation is advocated in the course of being pregnant to keep away from complications.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in NIMS Hospital, Jaipur.
Subjects and Methods: Blood was collected and investigations are done on Elite 580.
Results: This presence study enlightens the number of pregnant anemic patients according to education level, class, diet, and age. Sociopersonal status of pregnant women, the number of anemic was higher in illiterate than literate and according to the socioeconomic condition of anemic pregnant women, the number is much higher in poverty than in higher classes, whereas the number is much lesser in nonvegetarian than vegetarian and is higher in age between 21 and 30 years of age than below or above it.
Conclusion: Most of the pregnant women attending NIMS Hospital, Jaipur, were found to be anemic. Therefore, appropriate interventions by the competent authority are recommended to tackle this condition among pregnant women.

Keywords: Anemia, glucose-6 phosphate, hematocrit, pregnancy


How to cite this article:
Khajuria A, Imnasenla W, Sehrawat R, Gupta A, Sundar SB, Verma MK, Patil S. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending NIMS Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, in Western India. Santosh Univ J Health Sci 2022;8:137-40

How to cite this URL:
Khajuria A, Imnasenla W, Sehrawat R, Gupta A, Sundar SB, Verma MK, Patil S. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending NIMS Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, in Western India. Santosh Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];8:137-40. Available from: http://www.sujhs.org/text.asp?2022/8/2/137/367569




  Introduction Top


Anemia is a major disorder found in developing as well as developed countries, and the major cause is a lack of balance diet. Nowadays, anemia become headache for many countries governments as it pulls the economy of any country backward. Anemia is described as a discount in both the percentage of red blood cells (hematocrit) or a reduction in the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb).[1] Hb is the main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If the person has too fewer abnormal red blood cells, or Hb is abnormal or low, the cells in the body will not get enough oxygen.[2] Anemia is a severe public health problem affecting both developing and developing countries with major consequences for human health as well as socioeconomic development. It takes place at all levels of life, however, is more prevalent in pregnant women and younger children.[3] Among all, pregnant women and preschool-age children are common groups, in which anemia is found and is due to nutritional disorders and infections. Hence, the etiological importance of dietary deficiency as the major causative factor.


  Common Types of Anemia Top


Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. It occurs when you do no longer have sufficient iron in your body. Iron deficiency is commonly due to blood loss, however, can also occasionally be due to poor absorption of iron. Pregnancy and childbirth eat a great deal of iron and consequently can end result in pregnancy-related anemia. People who have had gastric bypass surgical treatment for weight loss or different motives may additionally be iron deficient due to poor absorption.

Vitamin-deficiency anemia may end result from low ranges of vitamin B12 or folate (folic acid), normally due to terrible dietary intake. Pernicious anemia is a situation, in which vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.

Anemia and pregnancy - the risk factors and symptoms of anemia during pregnancy.

Aplastic anemia is a rare bone marrow failure disorder, in which the bone marrow stops making enough blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). This happens as a result of the destruction or deficiency of blood-forming stem cells in your bone marrow, in specific when the body's own immune system assaults the stem cells. However, viral infections, ionizing radiation, and exposure to toxic chemicals or drugs can also result in aplastic anemia.[4],[5],[6]

Hemolytic anemia takes place when red blood cells are damaged up in the bloodstream or in the spleen. Hemolytic anemia may additionally be due to mechanical reasons (leaky coronary heart valves or aneurysms), infections, autoimmune disorders, or congenital abnormalities in the red blood cell. Inherited abnormalities may also have an effect on the Hb or the red blood cell shape or function. Examples of inherited hemolytic anemias consist of some kinds of thalassemia and low ranges of enzymes such as glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The therapy will rely on the cause.

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited hemolytic anemia, in which the Hb protein is abnormal, inflicting the red blood cells to be rigid, and clog the circulation due to the fact, they are unable to go with the flow through small blood vessels.

Anemia caused by other diseases - some diseases can have an effect on the body's potential to make red blood cells. For example, some patients with kidney disorders boost anemia due to the fact the kidneys are no longer making sufficient of the hormone erythropoietin to sign the bone marrow to make new or extra red blood cells. Chemotherapy used to deal with a variety of cancers frequently impairs the body's capacity to make new red blood cells, and anemia regularly affects from this treatment.


  Subjects and Methods Top


This investigation involved a cross-sectional study conducted at tertiary care hospital at Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The participants were enrolled between January 2021 and June 2022.

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Numerical variables are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). Enumeration data and ranked data are presented as percentages. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Ethics

The study was carried out in accordance with recommendations of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of NIMS College of Paramedical Technology Via letter number NIMS/IRC/PARA/MLT/2021/002. All parents provided written informed consent before the start of the study.

Collection of venous blood

TWO milliliter. The most commonly used sites for venipuncture were the vein inside the bend of the elbow.

Technique

Apply a tourniquet to the upper arm sufficiently tight to avert the venous flow and make the vein stand out. Sterilize the arm by way of swabbing the selected vein and site with 75% alcohol and allowed to dry. Prepare the syringe, normally, a 21-guage needle is suitable for very fantastic veins, the press simply beneath the puncture site to anchor the vein. Insert the needle easily with the bevel facing upwards, at the perspective of 20°-30° to the surface of the arm, when the adequate volume of blood is collected, the tourniquet is loosened and a wad of cotton wool at the puncture site used to be placed while withdrawing the needle gently. Blood is dispensed in the sample tubes as required.

Complete blood count

The blood samples were analyzed using a hematology analyzer (Erba Elite 580) performing hematological analysis on whole blood collected in EDTA tubes.


  Results Top


In [Table 1], sociopersonal status has been shown of the pregnant women, 208 patients are illiterate, and 47 patients have their education up to primary class. Up to middle class, 30 patients whereas 35 patients have their education up to high school, and 25 patients up to high secondary education. Number goes declines as the educational status increases, 17 patients have completed their graduation and 20 have their postgraduation.
Table 1: Distribution of pregnant women according to educational status

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In [Table 2], the socioeconomic condition of anemic pregnant women has been shown, 171 patients belongs in poverty, whereas in the case of the middle class, 138 patients belong to this class. High-class patients are 73 in number.
Table 2: Distribution according to socioeconomic status

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In [Table 3], the diet of the pregnant women has shown, 227 individuals belongs to vegetarian group whereas 155 are in nonvegetarian group.
Table 3: Distribution according to diet

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In [Table 4], the distribution of patients is shown who are pregnant and anemic according to age group. Below 20 years, there are 37 patients whereas between 21- and 30-year aged groups, a total of 281 patients are present. Aged group between 31 and 40 years, 65 patients have anemic.
Table 4: Distribution of anemic pregnant women according to age (years)

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In [Table 5], the distributions of patients are shown who are pregnant and anemic according to age group. Below 20 years, there are 37 patients, whereas between 21 and 30 years aged group, a total of 281 patients are present. Aged group between 31 and 40 years, 65 patients have anemic.
Table 5: Mean±standard deviation of different aged group patient

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  Discussion and Conclusion Top


In the present study, sociopersonal, socioeconomic status, and age are shown,

In India, anemia is a major public health issue.[7] According to the present study, the illiteracy rate in pregnant women with anemia is higher than in others and it is 28.53% and as the literacy rate increases, the anemic patients goes declines. Our study resembles with the study of Niwzu EN,[8] as they had discovered in their study that the nonformal education percentage in anemic pregnant women was 29.4%. A Similar study by Wemakor,[9] found in pregnant women with anemia had 60.4% of nonformal education rate. Our study was in disconcordance with the study done by Kumar et al.[10] and Mahamoud et al.[11] and this was due to the different geographical regions.

Socioeconomic status – The present study had shown that pregnant women with anemia belong to low poverty line i.e., 44.76% which is high among all classes. Our study was in concordance with the study of Kumar et al.,[10] and Wemakor[9] that 50%-56% belongs to lower household status which was higher rate than other studies.

Diet – In the present study, diet play a vital role and it had shown that vegetarian have 59.42% anemia and those of nonvegetarian had 40.58%. As no such studies had performed previously.

Age (in year) – In the present study, 73.56% of the pregnant women with anemia lie in the age group between 21 and 30 years aged group while 17.02% of patients belong between 31 and 40-year age group and 9.69% had below 20 years age group. The study resembles with the study of Nwizu et al.[8] who had shown that 27.3% of patients were between 20 and 29 age group followed by 31.8% who were more than 30 years age and this was in concordance with the study of Yu Wu[12] and Anthony Wernakor.[9]

Mean ± SD of different aged group patients – In the present study, the mean and SD below 20 year age group were 19.47 ± 0.66 years and while between 21- and 30-year aged groups, the value was 24.88 ± 2.73 years, whereas between 31- and 40-year aged group, the value was 35.25 ± 2.92 years and these values are in close resemblance with the study of Kavak and Kavak[13] who determined in their study that the mean anemic patient age was 26.21 ± 15.76 years. Our values are in concordance with the study of Saha et al.[14] and Wadgave,[15] who in their different studies have found an average age for anemia in pregnant women was 25.7 ± 3.7 years and 22.72 ± 3.25 years, respectively.

Hemoglobin (g/dl) – In the present study indicates that hemoglobin level during pregnancy below 20 years of aged group was 9.19 ± 1.18 g/dl while between 21-to-30-year age group, the level was 9.38 ± 1.19 g/dl. Whereas between 31- and 40-year aged groups, the value of Hb was 9.28 ± 1.13 g/dl. Our study was in concordance with the study of Jose L Villalva-Luna[16] and Anthony Wernakar[9] who had that the mean Hb level was 10.4 ± 0.7 g/dl. Both studies resemble with our results.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the subjects who participated in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Dhmh/Fha/Cmch Maryland Family Planning & Reproductive Health Program Clinical Guidelines. Available from: https://health.maryland.gov/phpa/mch/FP_Guidelines_2016/1.3,Gyn,A… · PDF file. [Last accessed on 2011 Jan 09].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Kumar, Abbas, Aster. Red blood cell and bleeding disorders. In: Robbins and Cotron Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed.Elsevier, Philadelphia:Elservier Saunders; 2015. p. 629-66.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Nwizu EN, Iliyasu Z, Ibrahim SA, Galadanci HS. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2011;15:33-41.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Wemakor A. Prevalence and determinants of anaemia in pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary referral hospital in Northern Ghana. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019;19:495.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Kumar V, Sunderam S, Haider S, Kashyap V. A study on status of anemia in pregnant women attending urban health training Center, RIMS, Ranchi. Indian J Community Health 2014;26:112-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Mahamoud NK, Mwambi B, Oyet C, Segujja F, Webbo F, Okiria JC, et al. Prevalence of anemia and its associated socio-demographic factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal care clinic at Kisugu health Center IV, Makindye Division, Kampala, Uganda. J Blood Med 2020;11:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Wu Y, Ye H, Liu J, Ma Q, Yuan Y, Pang Q, et al. Prevalence of anemia and sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant and non-pregnant women in southwest China: A longitudinal observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020;20:535.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Kavak EC, Kavak SB. The association between anemia prevalence, maternal age and parity in term pregnancies in our city. Perinat J 2017;25:6-10.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Saha S, Puwar T, Saxena D, Pandya AK, Vadsariya N, Desai B, et al. Scoping into non deficiency anemia: Reflection from the rural India. medRxiv - Primary Care Research (IF) 2021. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.100.21251472. [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 12].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Wadgave HV. Burden of anemia among the pregnant women in rural area. Healthline 2011;2:76-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Villalva-Luna JL, Villena-Prado JJ. Relationship between pregnant women with anemia in maternal age at the risk and low birth weight in a hospital of social security of the Peru. Rev Fac Med Hum 2020;20:581-88.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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