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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 130-131

Comparison of pulmonary function test and body mass index in medical and paramedical students


Department of Physiology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission12-May-2022
Date of Acceptance24-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication11-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Namrata Lahoty
147 D Rambagh, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sujhs.sujhs_25_22

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  Abstract 


Context: Obesity has become a serious public health issue in emerging nations, notably in India. Obesity alters the mechanics of the respiratory system, as well as exercise tolerance, gas exchanges, respiratory pattern modulation, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance, among other things.
Aims: The aim was to compare the pulmonary function test parameters in normal weight, overweight, and obese young people among the medical students.
Settings and Design: Obesity and overweight have become a global problem. They are the key health issues in both industrialized and developing nations today. As a result of obesity, which was defined as an excess of fat tissue in the body, a several systemic illnesses and a higher mortality rate might occur. Many bodily systems may be affected by obesity, resulting in higher rates of illness and death in the community.
Subjects and Methods: The present study was carried out at Santosh Medical College in the Department of Physiology and was a cross-sectional study. Based on the body mass index (BMI), three student groups were taken as normal, overweight, and obese, which was followed by pulmonary tests conducted using spirometry, and the observations were noted and were compared among the three groups.
Statistical Analysis Used: In this study, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses was performed. Continuous measurement data was shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD), whereas categorical measurement results was presented as a number (%). The significance is determined at a 5% level of significance. Assumptions: (1) Independent variables should have a normal distribution, (2) Samples selected from the population should be random, and sample cases should be independent.
Conclusions: This type of study is completely novel to this geographic location as a comparison is made between two different strata (medical and paramedical students) of both genders, and it aimed to determine whether there is a difference in pulmonary function between obese, overweight, and normal weight people, especially in this section of the country. As a result, the current study in both the groups found that: (1) Forced vital capacity in overweight people was much lower than in people of normal weight and much lower in obese compared to overweight, (2) Forced expiratory volume in the 1 s in overweight people was much lower than in people of normal weight and much lower in obese compared to overweight, (3) Forced expiratory flow 25–75 in overweight people was much lower than in people of normal weight and much lower in obese compared to overweight, (4) Peak expiratory flow rate in overweight people was much lower than in people of normal weight and much lower in obese compared to overweight. As a result, all of the indices of the lung function evaluated in this study indicated a statistically significant inverse relationship with a rise in BMI. This suggests that a rise in the body mass index changes lung functioning, potentially leading to long-term consequences and being linked to early mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: Obesity, medical students, pulmonary function


How to cite this article:
Lahoty N, Rinku G. Comparison of pulmonary function test and body mass index in medical and paramedical students. Santosh Univ J Health Sci 2022;8:130-1

How to cite this URL:
Lahoty N, Rinku G. Comparison of pulmonary function test and body mass index in medical and paramedical students. Santosh Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];8:130-1. Available from: http://www.sujhs.org/text.asp?2022/8/2/130/367560




  Introduction Top


Obesity and overweight have become a global problem.[1] They are the key health issues in both industrialized and developing nations today. As a result of obesity, which was defined as an excess of fat tissue in the body, a several systemic illnesses and a higher mortality rate might occur. Many bodily systems may be affected by obesity, resulting in higher rates of illness and death in the community. Many aspects of the respiratory system are affected by obesity, including the ability to exercise, gas exchanges, respiratory pattern control, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance.[2] Obesity in both children and adults has reached the worrisome levels.


  Subjects and Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional study. The present study was carried out at Santosh Medical College in the Department of Physiology. The number of groups divided was three: Group A – Normal weight (body mass index [BMI] –18.5–24.99) medical students, Group B – Overweight (BMI – 25–29.9) medical students, and Group C – Obese (BMI – 30 and above) medical students. Students with a BMI of 18.5–24.99 kg/m2 would be classified as being of normal weight. Students with a BMI between 25 and 29.99 kg/m2 would be considered overweight. Obese students are those who have a BMI of 30 or higher. Spirometry was used to measure the following respiratory parameters, as recommended by the American Thoracic Society in 1991,[3] such as forced vital capacity (FCV) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1). After discussing the technique, at least three acceptable and repeatable maximal expiratory flow volume curves are acquired.


  Discussion Top


Numerous studies have connected obesity with respiratory issues in young individuals. Our research included both male and female young adult medical and paramedical students. Medical and paramedical students were divided into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. In both groups, we discovered an inverse connection between BMI and respiratory measures (forced vital capacity, FEV1).

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Li AM, Chan D, Wong E, Yin J, Nelson EA, Fok TF. The effects of obesity on pulmonary function. Arch Dis Child 2003;88:361-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tenorio LH, Santos AD, Oliveira AS, Lima AM, Brasileiro-Santos MD. Obesity and pulmonary function tests in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Rev Paul Pediatr 2012;30:423-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
van Schalkwyk EM, Schultz C, Joubert JR, White NW, South African Thoracic Society Standards of Spirometry Committee. Guideline for office spirometry in adults, 2004. S Afr Med J 2004;94:576-87.  Back to cited text no. 3
    




 

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