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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 26-29

A study to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities on violent behaviors among school children in selected government schools at Ghaziabad (UP)


Department of Community Health Nursing, Santosh College of Nursing, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission18-Apr-2022
Date of Decision23-Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance25-Apr-2022
Date of Web Publication21-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Manjulavathi Gandhi
Santosh College of Nursing, NCR Delhi, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sujhs.sujhs_20_22

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  Abstract 


Background: This was a pre-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities on violent behaviors among school children in selected government schools at Ghaziabad, UP.
Aims & Objectives: The objectives of the study were to (i) assess the level of violent behaviors among school children before the diversional activities, (ii) to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities among school children on violent behaviors, and (iii) to find out the association between the levels of violent behavior among school children with selected demographic variables.
Materials and Methods: A quantitative research approach containing a standardized tool including child behavior checklist was used to assess the violent behaviors among school children. The study was conducted at Guldharand, Raispur Primary School, Ghaziabad, UP, in February 2019. The students who met the study inclusion criteria were selected using purposive sampling technique.
Results: The data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using both descriptive and inferential statistics.
Conclusion: The study showed that the diversional activities help in the reduction of violent behaviors among school children and there was no association between level of violent behavior and selected demographic variables.

Keywords: Diversional activities, school children, violent behavior


How to cite this article:
Gandhi M, Rai P, Rajput M. A study to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities on violent behaviors among school children in selected government schools at Ghaziabad (UP). Santosh Univ J Health Sci 2022;8:26-9

How to cite this URL:
Gandhi M, Rai P, Rajput M. A study to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities on violent behaviors among school children in selected government schools at Ghaziabad (UP). Santosh Univ J Health Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 11];8:26-9. Available from: http://www.sujhs.org/text.asp?2022/8/1/26/351569




  Introduction Top


Violence, perhaps, has always been a part of human experience that reflects its impact in various forms globally. Studies have shown that each year, more than a million people lose their lives, and many more suffer from nonfatal injuries as a result of self-inflicted, interpersonal, or collective violence. The World Health Organization defined violence as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself or any other single and/or group of people, which results in a high likelihood of injury, death, psychological harm, mal development, or deprivation.[1] Violent behavior among children and adolescents is commonly increasing these days. Children and youth those who are suffering the domestic violence in their day-to-day life often experience emotional, mental, and social damage that can affect their developmental growth. While some children lose the ability to understand the feelings of his/her opponent, and others feel socially isolated, unable to make friends as easily due to social discomfort or confusion over what is acceptable. Up to one-third of children may be involved in victimization as aggressors, victims, or both. Social stresses (e.g., low family income and low parental education levels) are risk factors for bullying. In 2015, nearly 25% of male high school students in the US reported carrying a weapon at least once during the month before they were surveyed as part of a study on youth risks.[2]

Regardless of the ongoing interest in the possible relationship between violent behavior and genetic defects or chromosomal anomalies, there are few evidence showing such relationship. However, the major risk factors that are associated with the violent behavior are not only limited to intense corporal punishment, alcohol abuse, gang involvement, access to firearms, but also include stressful family situations such as single parenting, the breakup of a marriage, parental unemployment, poverty, and severe deprivation.[3] As consequences of violent behavior in children and adolescents, a wide range of behavioral effects such as explosive temper tantrums, physical aggression, fighting, threats or attempts to hurt others, use of weapons, cruelty toward animals, fire setting, intentional destruction of property, and vandalism may be happened most frequently. It is very clear that the relationship between violence and access to firearms, exposure to violence through media, and experiencing to child abuse and domestic violence. Children those who are intimated to violence may reach a breaking point that might strike back with potentially dangerous or catastrophic results. The American Academy of Pediatrics reports that exposure to media violence initiates problems with aggressive behavior, nightmares, desensitization to violence, anxiety, and depression. Repeated exposure to aggressive media creates an attitude that aggression is an appropriate problem-solving tool that facilitates success.[4]

Violence and willingness to use violence are unfortunately being one of the current issues among children and adolescents. Not only the victims suffer from experiencing violence but also the behavior of perpetrators of violence is associated with many risks, which can over the long term significantly impede their potential for development. There is a great concern about the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. Such a complex and troubling issue needs to be sensibly understood by parents, teachers, and other adults. Children as young as preschoolers can show violent behavior. Parents and other adults who witness the behavior may be concerned; however, they often hope that the young child will “grow out of it.” Violent behavior in a child at any age always needs to be taken seriously. It should not be quickly dismissed as just a phase they are going through. Usage of social media such as Internet usage and watching of television by children must be carefully monitored by elders in the family.[5] Parents along with teachers should teach and make them understood about the importance of dos and don'ts, so that kids' energy can be channelized for their better future.

Therefore, the current study was designed with the main focus to assess the effectiveness of diversional activities on violent behavior among school children in few selected public government schools at Ghaziabad, Delhi-NCR, with the following objectives:

  • To assess the level of violent behaviors among school children before the diversional activities
  • To assess the effectiveness of diversional activities among school children on violent behaviors
  • To find out the association between the levels of violent behavior among school children with selected demographic variables.



  Study Design and Methods Top


Approach: A quantitative evaluative approach was designed and used in the study to obtain some valuable out that fulfills the objectives effectively.

Study design

A preexperimental study design with two groups, namely, pretest and posttest groups, was adopted in this study.

Study area

Government Primary Schools at Raispur and Guldhar of Ghaziabad District in UP, was selected as location for the current study.

Sampling and sample size

Purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples. A total of 60 children with the age group of 6–8 years studying in the selected government primary schools at Raispur and Guldhar of District Ghaziabad, were involved in this study.

Inclusion criteria:

  • Children between the ages of 6 and 8 years
  • Those who are willing to participate.


Exclusion criteria:

  • Those children are absent or sick on the day of data collection.
  • Child with autism and mentally challenged children.


Description of the study tool of questionnaire

Section A

It consists of structured multiple-choice question to assess the demographic data such as age, gender, educational status of father and mother, occupation of father and mother, type of family, family income/month, area of living, duration of video game/day, type of game, duration of watching television/day, and type of television program.

Section B

It contains the child behavior checklist (CBCL) for violent behavior assessment. It consists of 20 statements regarding violent behaviors.

Collection of data

Data collection was conducted within a period of 1 month during February 2019. Before conducting the study, a proper permission was obtained by the investigators from the authorities of the schools. The purpose and focus of the study was very clearly explained by the investigators, and the children were involved into the study with their willingness to participate in the study investigator explained about the purpose of conducting this study and their willingness to participate in the study. The responses obtained were assessed with highly confidential.

A total of 110 students out of the total strength of 152 from government primary schools at Raispur and Guldhar were chosen by applying the purposive sampling technique. The pretest was conducted with the help of CBCL. Sixty samples were selected according to the severity of violent behavior. Diversional activities were given to the selected 60 samples. After 4 weeks, the test was conducted using CBCL.

Analysis of the data

The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  1. Frequency and percentage of demographic variables of school children with violent behaviors
  2. Comparison of frequency and percentage of level of violent behavior among school children before and after giving diversional activities
  3. Comparison of mean and standard deviation (SD) and “t” value score of level of violent behavior in pretest and posttest
  4. Association of the level of violent behavior in pretest with their selected demographic variables.



  Results Top


Results observed in the present study related to the demographic variables of the sample is shown in [Figure 1]. The outcome of the study shows that 30% were 6 years of age, 31.7% were 7 years and 38.3% were 8 years of age.
Figure 1: Demoragphic Varibles

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The percentage of children involved in videogame activities calculated from the present study is clearly depicted in [Figure 2]. Out of the total number of children involved in the present study it was observed that 16.7% of children play videogame <1 h/day, 31.7% 1–2 h, 40% 3–4 h and 11.7% play more than 4 h/day.
Figure 2: Percentage of Children Watching Video Game

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Findings related to effectiveness of diversional activities based on our present study is shown in [Figure 3]. It was observed that percentage of level of violent behavior was decreased after giving diversional activities. The mean score of pretest and posttest level of violent behavior among violent school children was 23.87 (SD = 6.62), 12.87 (SD = 7.46) respectively. The mean score was decreased after giving diversional activities. t = 27.57, P = 0.00 which were significant at 0.05 levels.
Figure 3: Effect on the Diversional Activities

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  Discussion and Conclusion Top


The findings of the present study indicated that playing videogame and watching TV for long time increase the violent behavior level in children. By giving diversional activities such as drawing, coloring, art, and craft, there was a reduction in the violent behavior among school children. Research studies have shown that much violent behavior can be decreased or even prevented risks factors are significantly reduced or eliminated.[6] Most importantly, effort should be directed of dramatically decreasing the exposure of children to violence in the home, community and through the media. Clearly violence leads to violence.

Therefore, based on the obtained results from the current study, it can be concluded that:

  • The level of violent behavior among school children has been reduced significantly (P < 0.05) after diversional activities.
  • There was no association between violent behavior and demographic variables such as age, gender, educational status and/or occupation of the parents, type of family, family income, area of living, type of games, duration of watching TV/day, and type of program except duration of playing video game/day.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Available from: http://WHO.int/Violence-injury-Prevention/violence/World-report/en/chap1. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): 1991–2017 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data. Available from: https://nccd.cdc.gov/Youthonline. [Last accessed on 2019 Nov 22].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents. 2nd ed. NIH Publication No. 04-4212(A) 2003.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Council on Communications and Media. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy Statement Media Violence. Pediatrics 2009;124:1495-503.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Canadian Paediatric Society. Walkley Road, Suite 100, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 4G8; 2204. Available from: http//:www.caringforkids.cps.ca. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Understanding-Violent-Behavior-In-Children-and-Adolescents In: The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Available from: https://www.aacap.org. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 6
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]



 

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